TUBEROUS INDIAN PLANTAIN
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Arnoglossum plantagineum  Raf.
[=Cacalia plantaginea  (Raf. ) Shinners]
Konza Prairie, Riley County, Kansas
Perennial
Height: 2-5 feet
Family: Asteraceae - Sunflower Family
Flowering Period:   June, July, August
Stems: Erect, stout, angled, glabrous, longitudinally grooved.
Leaves: Alternate, simple, long-stalked, narrowly ovate to elliptic, 2 to 8 inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, thick, firm, rubbery texture, glabrous, several prominent parallel veins converging near apex; margins entire to wavy; tips blunt or pointed; upper leaves gradually reduced, sessile or short-stalked, sometimes toothed near tips.
Inflorescences: Cymes, corymb-like, broad, flat-topped, terminal or in upper leaf axils; heads 50-100, small, narrowly cylindrical; bracts 5, pale green, elevated rib on outer surface.
Flowers: Ray florets absent, disk florets 5, corollas tubular, deeply 5-lobed, creamy-white.
Fruits: Achenes, oblong, prominently ribbed, tipped with numerous white, hair-like bristles, enclosing small seed.
Habitat: Damp, rocky prairies, open woods, thickets, and roadsides.
Distribution: East 2/5 of Kansas.
Comments: "Tuberous" is in reference to the clump of fleshy, thickened roots produced by the plant.

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